Charlton-on-Otmoor is one of the 'Seven Towns Of Otmoor', the other "towns" being Beckley, Oddington, Horton-cum-Studley, Noke, Murcott and Fencott. Before Enclosure in the early 1800s any cottager who lived in one of the ‘Seven Towns’ had right of grazing for their cattle, sheep and geese on the moor.
The centre of the village is dominated by the large 13th century Church of St. Mary the Virgin with its tall tower. Substantial alterations were carried out to the church in the 14th century and there has been some further restoration since. The 15th Century rood screen has finely decorated carved panels.
Charlton-on-Otmoor is on an unclassified road about 4 miles south of Bicester on the north edge of Otmoor.